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Medications and what they can mean for your mouth

Whether you’re taking prescription drugs or herbal supplements, medication can take a toll on your teeth.

Here are some of the most common side effects.

Dry mouth 

A decrease in saliva increases your risk of oral infections and tooth decay. 

Medicinal culprits: 

Antidepressants 

Antihistamines 

Asthma inhalers 

Diuretics 

Anti-anxiety drugs 

Anticonvulsants 

Decongestants 

Muscle relaxants

Narcotic painkillers

Cavities

Sugar, syrups and other sweeteners in medication can put your teeth at risk. Always read the labels when selecting over-the-counter medicines, and don’t forget to rinse or brush after your dose. 

Medicinal culprits:

Cough syrups

Cough drops

Chewable or gummy vitamins

Antacid tablets

Liquid medications

Overgrowth of gum tissue 

Gingival enlargement causes painful, inflamed gums that grow over the teeth.

Medicinal culprits: 

Anti-seizure medications 

Immunosuppressant drugs given after organ transplants 

Calcium channel blockers (used to treat high blood pressure, migraines and Raynaud’s syndrome)

Mouth ulcers

These painful sores generally appear on the inside of the cheeks.

Medicinal culprits:

Aspirin

Ibuprofen

Beta blockers (used to prevent heart attacks and treat hypertension)

Nicorandil (used to treat chest pain)

Penicillin

Chemotherapy drugs

Enamel stains

Your pearly whites may appear significantly less white as a result of these medications. 

Medicinal culprits: 

Antihistamines

Antipsychotic drugs

Drugs for high blood pressure 

Tetracycline and doxycycline (antibiotics) 

Antiseptic mouth rinses that contain chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride

Thrush

Yeast infections of the mouth appear as white fungus on the tongue and throat.

Medicinal culprits:

Antibiotics

Birth control pills

Corticosteroids

Loss of bone tissue

By leaching minerals from your bone, some medications can increase your chance of losing teeth.

Medicinal culprits:

Bisphosphonates (used to treat cancer and prevent osteoporosis)

Antacids that contain aluminum

Steroids

Anti-seizure medications

Antidepressants

Hormone blockers (used to treat hormone-linked cancers and endometriosis)

Abnormal bleeding

Blood-thinning medications can cause problems during oral surgery, periodontal treatment or even flossing.

Medicinal culprits:

Aspirin

Antacids that contain aluminum

Anti-stroke drugs

Heart disease medications

What do I do if medications are affecting my oral health?

Talk to your physician about your side effects, and always give your dentist a complete list of medications you’re taking, both prescription and over-the-counter. Your dentist will be able to help you minimize these side effects and prevent damage to your oral health.

(12/05/2023)
by Delta Dental

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